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  Ibn Tulun
Ibn Tulun governed Egypt in the 9th century during the Abbassids period. Upon his arrival he founded his own capital and built his mosque on a hill called Gabal Yashkur. The mosque was built to supplement the Amr Ibn Al As mosque which could no longer accommodate the growing Muslim population. Ibn Tulun's mosque is built around a courtyard with four arcaded halls (called riwaq). Excluding the qibla wall (the wall marking the direction of Mecca), the other three sides are surrounded by an enclosed space (called a ziyada) separating and protecting the mosque from the noise of the streets. On the north side of the ziyada stands the minaret which is a unique stone structure with an outer staircase. Although restorations have been made to the mosque since its initial construction, it remains the oldest mosque in Egypt in its original form, Location: Sharia el Salibah, 0.5 km west of the Citadel. 3 km southeast of Midan el Tahrir.
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